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  1. Cerebellar degeneration is a rare and severe presentation of primary Sjögren syndrome. There are few case reports of cerebellar degeneration associated with different autoimmune diseases, especially with syste...

    Authors: Seow Lin Chuah, Ahmad Tirmizi Jobli, Sharifah Aishah Wan and Cheng Lay Teh

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:526

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Autoimmune hepatitis–primary sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome is a form of autoimmune hepatitis with cholestatic features and is characterized by negative anti-mitochondrial antibody and cholangiographi...

    Authors: Behzad Hatami, Hamide Rahmani Seraji and Mohaddese fallahi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:524

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Uveal effusion syndrome is a rare disease characterized by exudative detachments of the choroid, ciliary body, and retina. Various surgical procedures and nonsurgical strategies have been described to treat uv...

    Authors: Li Song, Fangtian Dong and Changxian Yi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:515

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an effective cardiopulmonary support therapy, which can provide temporary cardiopulmonary support for critically ill patients whose condition cannot be reversed by...

    Authors: YouLian Chen, HuaiSheng Chen, XueYan Liu, ChengYing Hong and HuaDong Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:529

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Desmoplastic fibroblastoma (also known as collagenous fibroma) is a benign, slowly growing soft-tissue tumor. Most desmoplastic fibroblastomas develop in the limbs, neck, or trunk. A mediastinal origin is quit...

    Authors: Tai Hato, Hiroaki Kashimada, Masatoshi Yamaguchi, Ato Sugiyama, Yoshiaki Inoue, Kohei Aoki, Hiroki Fukuda, Masatoshi Gika, Jun Kikuchi, Takashi Fujino, Takehiko Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi Tamaru, Mitsutomo Kohno and Mitsuo Nakayama

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:525

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Plantaris tendinopathy and plantaris-associated Achilles tendinopathy can be responsible for chronic pain in the Achilles tendon midportion, often accompanied by medial tenderness. As conservative treatments a...

    Authors: Håkan Alfredson, Lorenzo Masci and Christoph Spang

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:513

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common nonmelanotic skin cancer. It has variable clinical and histological subtypes that vary in their aggressiveness and liability to recurrence and metastasis. Chronic ultrav...

    Authors: Mohammad Younes, Lamia Kouba, Hanaa Almsokar and Ayham Badran

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:512

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are new immunotherapy drugs globally used for many malignancies, including renal cell carcinoma. Myocarditis as an immune-related adverse event is rare but highly fatal, suggesting...

    Authors: Yasuyuki Miyauchi, Hirohito Naito, Hiroyuki Tsunemori, Ryosuke Tani, Yusuke Hasui, Yuichi Miyake, Tetsuo Minamino, Ryo Ishikawa, Yoshio Kushida, Reiji Haba and Mikio Sugimoto

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:508

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Meningiomas are the most commonly encountered intracranial tumors, usually showing indolent behavior. Extra-axial spreading and distant metastases are seldom detected in these tumors, and lung metastasis from ...

    Authors: Parviz Mardani, Arash Safarian, Anita Ashari, Sarina Pourjafar, Mohammad Hossein Anbardar, Negar Azarpira, Masoud Vafabin and Shahaboddin Yousefi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:509

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Intracranial arachnoid cysts are common, cerebrospinal fluid-filled, innocent lesions that are usually detected incidentally on brain imaging. They may rupture and complicate due to subdural hematoma or hygrom...

    Authors: Mohammad Farouq Hamidi and Hidayatullah Hamidi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:511

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis, affecting young male patients. It frequently presents as a large abdominal mass with widespread peritoneal involvement at diagnosis...

    Authors: S. Slim, I. Zemni, A. Bouida, M. Bouhani, N. Boujelbene, K. Mrad, R. Chargui and K. Rahal

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:500

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion syndrome occurs in 10% of all patients with adrenocorticotropic-hormone-dependent hypercortisolism. It is usually associated with overt malignancies or with occult...

    Authors: Farzad Najafipour, Amir Bahrami, Mitra Niafar, Jalil Houshyar, Monireh Halimi and Vahideh Sadra

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:514

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Melnick–Needles syndrome and periventricular nodular heterotopia are two usually mutually exclusive phenotypes of F-actin-binding cytoskeletal phosphoprotein Filamin-A mutations. Melnick–Needles syndrome is a ...

    Authors: Maria Pia Riccio, Giuseppe D’Andrea, Emilia Sarnataro, Maria Marino, Carmela Bravaccio and Umberto Albert

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:495

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. It is a Gram-negative bacterium and a...

    Authors: Mayyadah Alabdely, Mohammed Alazmah, Bandar Alamro, Mohamad S. Alabdaljabar and Magid Halim

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:507

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Autoimmune diseases refers to a class of diseases involving abnormal immune response of human body and tissue damage caused by the dysregulation of autoimmune balance or destruction of immune tolerance. Recent...

    Authors: Lulu Zhang, Dongxue Ding, Liqiang Yu, Huan Qi, Chunru Han, Jianhua Jiang and Juean Jiang

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:498

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Cesarean scar pregnancy is a complicated and potentially life-threatening type of ectopic pregnancy. This study reports two women with cesarean scar pregnancy who were successfully treated with systemic methot...

    Authors: Zahra Heidar, Shahrzad Zadeh Modarres, Zhila Abediasl, Arezo Khaghani, Ensieh Salehi and Tayebeh Esfidani

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:506

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Gallbladder volvulus is a rare pathology first reported by Wendel in 1898. Although the main pathological process associated with gallbladder volvulus is not known, there is clinical evidence suggesting that l...

    Authors: Phillip Croce and Samuel Licata

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:494

    Content type: Case report

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  18. The clinical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection is highly variable from asymptomatic infection to fulminant disease. The reasons for the variation are only starting to un...

    Authors: Terese L. Katzenstein, Sofie E. Jørgensen, Jann Mortensen, Marie Helleberg, Anna Kalhauge and Trine H. Mogensen

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:505

    Content type: Case report

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  19. The occurrence of acute leukemia in patients with sickle cell anemia is uncommon. The Philadelphia chromosome is the hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, it may also be associated with acute lymphobl...

    Authors: Ibrahim O. Ahmed, Lauretta O. Ochogwu, Temilola O. Owojuyigbe, Norah O. Akinola and Muheez A. Durosinmi

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:504

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Regular outpatient rehabilitation is prescribed for many patients with chronic neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis, to constantly support patients and their proxies in dis...

    Authors: Tobias Braun, Raphael Weidmann, Jens Carsten Möller, Anissa Ammann and Detlef Marks

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:503

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is usually performed in cases of severe respiratory failure in which conventional and advanced mechanical ventilation strategies are ineffective in ach...

    Authors: Emiliano Gamberini, Venerino Poletti, Emanuele Russo, Alessandro Circelli, Marco Benni, Giovanni Scognamiglio, Domenico Pietro Santonastaso, Costanza Martino, Linda Domenichini, Romina Biondi, Giorgia Bastoni, Etrusca Brogi, Luca Ansaloni, Federico Coccolini, Paola Fugazzola, Martina Spiga…

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:499

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Minoxidil hair formulation is commonly used for the treatment of male or female androgenic alopecia. This over-the-counter product is considered safe, but should be used with caution. Ocular side effects follo...

    Authors: Ramesh Venkatesh, Arpitha Pereira, Nikitha Gurram Reddy and Naresh Kumar Yadav

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:493

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Macrophage activation syndrome is classified as a secondary form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. It is a hyperinflammatory complication observed to be comorbid with a variety of autoimmune diseases, inc...

    Authors: Wesam Gouda, Faisal Alsaqabi, Abdelhfeez Moshrif, Awad S. Abbas, Tarek M. Abdel-Aziz and Md Asiful Islam

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:497

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Subdural hematoma is a rare, potentially devastating, yet curable complication of spinal anesthesia. Differentiation between post-dural puncture headache and subdural hematoma can be difficult, resulting in a ...

    Authors: Delayehu Bekele, Mehari Bayable and Alemayehu Bedane

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:492

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia is emerging as one of the most relevant side effects of adenoviral-based vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019. Given the novelty of this disease, the med...

    Authors: Nicole Ceschia, Valentina Scheggi, Anna Maria Gori, Angela Antonietta Rogolino, Francesca Cesari, Betti Giusti, Franco Cipollini, Niccolò Marchionni, Brunetto Alterini and Rossella Marcucci

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:496

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Cardiac myxoma is the most common type of primary cardiac tumor, and thymic carcinoid is a rare neuroendocrine tumor. No previous reports have described surgical management of concomitant occurrence of these n...

    Authors: Ryohei Matsushima, Kosuke Fujino, Eri Matsubara, Yoshiko Masuda, Koei Ikeda, Makoto Suzuki and Toshihiro Fukui

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:491

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Renal cell carcinoma is the third most common malignant tumor in the urogenital tract. An estimated 25% of renal cell carcinomas are in stage IV when diagnosed. The 5-year-survival with stage IV is about 20%. ...

    Authors: F. Bruckschen, C. D. Gerharz and A. Sagir

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:490

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome is a rare disease characterized by the triad of recurrent orofacial swelling with facial paralysis and fissured dorsal tongue. Histologically, noncaseating granulomatous inflammat...

    Authors: J. Casper, S. Mohammad-Khani, J. J. Schmidt, J. T. Kielstein, T. Lenarz, H. Haller and Annette D. Wagner

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:488

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Metastases to the female genital tract from extragenital primary tumors are unusual. We report a rare case of uterine cervix metastasis from colon adenocarcinoma and discuss diagnostic and therapeutic issues.

    Authors: I. Sassi, M. Ghalleb, M. Chemlali, M. Mbarek, L. Charfi, R. Chargui and K. Rahal

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:486

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Neuromyelitis optica is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. In neuromyelitis optica, white blood cells and antibodies primarily at...

    Authors: Rodas Asrat Kassu, Hailu Abera Mulatu, Sisay Gizaw, Henok Fisseha, Amir Musema, Ayube Keder, Semere Negash, Fithanegest Tefera, Adugna Lissanwerk and Lemlem Tamrat

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:489

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma with a high recurrence rate and a low risk of distant metastasis. It occurs mainly in the extremities of elderly men. Head and neck MFS is extremely rare. S...

    Authors: Chiara Pagnoni, Luca Improta, Rossana Alloni, Francesco Mallozzi Santa Maria, Irene Aprile, Beniamino Brunetti, Carlo Greco, Bruno Vincenzi, Alessandro Gronchi and Sergio Valeri

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:484

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Ascaris in urinary bladder is an extremely rare phenomenon. It may occur after fistula formation between urinary and gastrointestinal tract or by retrograde migration of adult worm, and is associated with comp...

    Authors: Gashaw Mesele and Zelalem Mengistu

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:480

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Renal echinococcosis is of rare occurrence, and although often asymptomatic, it can present with various mild to drastic presentations, of which hydatiduria is pathognomonic. Diagnosis can be preliminarily est...

    Authors: Sameera Shuaibi, Abdelrahman AlAshqar, Munirah Alabdulhadi and Wasl Al-Adsani

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:487

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Graft-versus-host disease is a common complication seen with allogenic stem cell transplant, which is used to treat a variety of hematological malignancies. Graft-versus-host disease is an allogenic syndrome a...

    Authors: Anmar Al-Heilfi, Champa Nataraja, Helen Cooley and Tracey Batt

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:478

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Renal angiomyolipoma is considered a benign mesenchymal tumor composed of fat, smooth muscle, and blood vessels. It represents 1–3% of solid renal tumors. Despite this tumor’s benignity, it can be aggressive w...

    Authors: H. Bouaziz, M. Ghalleb, N. Tounsi, N. Riahi, H. Bouzaiene, J. Ziadi, J. Ben Hassouna, M. Slimane and K. Rahal

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:477

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Fibroepithelial polyps located in the ureter constitute 2–6% of all benign tumors in the urinary system. Distinguishing these lesions from transitional cell carcinoma is essential to avoid unnecessary nephrour...

    Authors: Serkan Akan and Caner Ediz

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:475

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder and the most frequent benign cause of hypercalcemia. PHPT is characterized by autonomous hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), regardles...

    Authors: Simone Diedrichsen Marstrand, Charlotte Landbo Tofteng, Anne Jarløv, Line Borgwardt and Peter Schwarz

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:471

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome is a rare lymphocyte-related oculorenal inflammatory disease presumed to be associated with drug use and infectious agents. Toxoplasma gondii is one of such patho...

    Authors: Yoshihiro Oya, Hidekazu Futami, Takuya Nakazawa, Kazuyuki Ishijima, Keiko Umemiya, Fumiyoshi Takizawa, Naoki Imai, Hiroshi Kitamura and Ryutaro Matsumura

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:482

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Takayasu arteritis is a systemic granulomatous inflammation affecting the large- and medium-sized vessels such as aorta, its main branches, and pulmonary and renal arteries. Childhood Takayasu arteritis is a s...

    Authors: Wafa Alwattar, Rawan Al khudari, Judy Naameh, Jia Batha, Raghad Almajzoub and Basheer Khalil

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:469

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Fixed dilated pupil after ophthalmic surgery or Urrets-Zavalia syndrome occurs after anterior segment surgery and usually relates to postoperative elevation of intraocular pressure. Urrets-Zavalia syndrome res...

    Authors: Duangratn Niruthisard and Ngamjit Kasetsuwan

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:467

    Content type: Case report

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  41. Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf serine/threonine receptor tyrosine kinases and inhibits tumor cell growth and angiogenesis. Cutaneous toxicities of sorafenib are common, including ...

    Authors: M. Nazim Abbas, Wei Son Tan and Ganessan Kichenadasse

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:481

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Up to 30% of all scrotal masses are sarcomas. Leiomyosarcoma of the scrotal wall is rare, and its clinical significance and prognosis have not been well defined, since the most reported cases have little or no...

    Authors: Zahra Erfani, Aileen Azari-yam and Seyed Reza Yahyazadeh

    Citation: Journal of Medical Case Reports 2021 15:465

    Content type: Case report

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